In some villages of Maharashtra still the day dawns with the ringing of bells in the temples, lowing of cows and calves, and women singing ovyas while grinding grains with grinding wheels in their own houses. But gradually the scene is being transformed with the introduction of modern machines. Only in big villages, towns and cities, flour-mills arc found in  substantial numbers; while in rural areas two or three villages  have a flour-mill in common. In villages the establishments  work on oil-engines and in towns and cities flour-mills work on power. Grinding grains and chillis are the main occupations which provide employment throughout the year.

Electric motors, oil-engines, grinders, balances and other minor tools constitute the main equipment. The cost off equipment in these establishments varies from Rs. 1,500 to  Rs. 3,500. The amount of money spent on the repairs of equipment varies from Rs. 200 to Rs. 450 or more per year. The capital  required for initial investment in many cases was raised by the  proprietors from their own resources.

Most of the establishments are housed in rented premises, the  rent of which varies from Rs. 15 to Rs. 30 per month. The  other items on which expenditure is incurred are electric  energy, diesel oil, etc. It varies from about Rs. 30 to Rs. 80  depending upon the size and the turnover of the establishment. Many of these establishments are managed by the proprietors  with the help of assistants. The employees, if any, are paid monthly wages varying between Rs. 40 and Rs. 60.

The establishments have a continuous business throughout the year. It is usually brisk during festivals like Divali, Holi, etc.,  and also at the time of marriage celebrations. The owner of the establishment having one Chakki earns about Rs. 150 to Rs. 300 per month.