INDUSTRIES

LARGE AND SMALL INDUSTRIES

I-LARGE AND SMALL INDUSTRIES

Electricity Generation.

The supply of electricity to the Amravati district is chiefly from the Khaparkheda South Thermal Grid Scheme. The supply to the Dharni Town is from the Dharni Power House. Power supply was made available to the district from the Vidarbha Grid Scheme in the year 1951 and the Dharni Power House was established as late as 1963. The installed capacity and area of supply were increased from time to time and further extensions and increase in the power-load is proposed. In recent years, a beginning has been made in the electrification of the processing industries in the district such as ginning and pressing and oil mills. Powerlooms are also being used on an increasing scale. Besides, there are about 3,500 water pumps in the district working On electricity.

The following statement gives the location of each power house, its installed capacity, power supplied, area of supply, fixed capital, etc.

There are several proposals for further extension of electrification. From the Dharni Power House it is proposed to supply electricity to Kusumkot, Dharni and Kalamkhar for agricultural pumps. From the Vidarbha Grid System it is proposed to bring new villages under electrification and to increase the power-load.

TABLE No. 2

ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND SUPPLY FOR AMRAVATI DISTRICT

Station

Date of establishment

Total Installed Capacity in K. W.

Composition

Power Supplied in K. W.

Rate per unit in Rs.

Industry

Household

Industry

Household

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Dharni

11 th April 1963

105

2 Sets of 75 K. W. and 30 K. W. respectively.

15

18

0.15

0.44

Vidarbha Grid Scheme.

Power supply made available from the Vidarbha Grid Scheme in 1951.

No generation

No separate meter for Amravati district.

6,937

8,976

0.15

0.31

 

Station

Area of Supply

Mileage of Power Line

Fixed Capital in Rs.

Working Capital in Rs.

Value of Productive Machinery in Rs.

Total Number of workers

Annual Wage Bill in Rs.

(1)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

Dharni

Dharni Town

2.75 miles

2,37,000

98,686

1,40,000

12

32,687

Vidarbha Grid Scheme

Amravati district

66 K.W. 120 miles. 33 K. W. 63 miles.

14,77,128

N.A.

N.A.

575

4,88,400

Auto-repairing and General Engineering.

Auto-repairing and general engineering is mainly located at Amravati proper. The expansion programme of motorable roads and subsequent increase in automobile vehicles and marketing centres have brought about an appreciable rise in the demand for services rendered by this industry. The activities of the units are diverse, ranging from the production of spare parts to welding, manufacture of agricultural implements, motor repairs, etc. Most of them are small-scale units engaged in ancillary manufacturing activities.

One of the units was established in 1925 while another was established in 1958. They work throughout the year.

The fixed capital, including the value of land and buildings, plant and machinery of these two units is Rs. 1,15,775. Their working capital amounts to Rs. 2,17,216.

These units use hard coke, coal and electricity as fuel and power. The value of fuel consumed by one of the reporting units is Rs. 3,700.

Gun metal, copper, aluminium, white metal and cast iron are used as raw materials. These are brought in the form of ingots, slabs, scrappings and castings. Packing material consists of hessians, craft paper, wooden cases and straw boards. The other accessories required are chemicals such as acetylene, acids, calcium carbide, soda ash and other auxiliaries like paints and varnishes. The raw materials are purchased at Amravati and Nagpur.

These units generally employ men workers. The labour employed consists of turners, moulders, fitters and coolies.

The wage rates differ as between skilled arid unskilled workers.

The employees numbered 56 and their annual wage-bill (together with money value of other benefits and privileges) stood at Rs. 54,769 in 1962.

The products include spare parts of oil engines, steam engines, tractors and automobiles. Besides, these units also repair automobiles. The demand for the services of these units is local.

Textiles.

The rich black cotton soil of the district gives a plentiful yield of cotton crop which occupies an area of about 344,250 hectares (8.5 lakh acres). This factor led to the development of cotton spinning and weaving industry in the district. In addition to a number of hand-weaving establishments there were in 1962 two textile mills, viz., the Berar Manufacturing Company, Ltd., at Badnera and the Vidarbha Mills (Berar), Ltd., at Achalpur.

The most important manufacture of the district in 1907 [Central Provinces and Berar District Gazetteers, Amravati District, Vol. A, 1911, Page 238.] was cotton yarn and cloth by the mills at Badnera. The first textile mill in the district, viz., the Berar Manufacturing Company, Ltd., Badnera, was opened in 1885. Yarn of all kinds and woven goods were produced. The articles produced were extremely durable and stood rough wear.

As a result of the cotton boom during the triennium after 1921 the number of cotton ginning and pressing factories increased. The textile industry, however, suffered a set-back because of the 3 per cent excise duty imposed on mill cloth and also on account of depression, labour troubles, currency difficulties, etc. The abolition of the excise duty in 1926 coupled with the continued tariff protection helped the mill industry. Besides, the textile mills had started to reap the benefits of mechanisation and large-scale production and could now undertake the production of all types of fabrics successfully. Preference for simple attire and laundered clothing benefited the mills. A further impetus was provided by the Swadeshi and non-co-operation movement in the thirties of the century. The output of the mills increased appreciably. In 1925 a new textile mill, viz., the Vidarbha Mills (Berar), Ltd., was established at Achalpur. During the period of the Second World War (1939-45), the mill industry developed further and could easily cope up with the rising wartime demand.

The production of the textile mills of the district during the decade 1950 to 1960 was as under: -

Item

Units

1950

1955

1960

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Cotton Yarn

Units in Kilos

24.12 (1,087,200.000 Kilos)

56.19 (2,536,800.000 Kilos)

26.52 (1,223,100.000 Kilos)

Cotton cloth

Units in Kilos

69.24 (3,125,700.000)

144.20 (6,523,200.000)

93.01 (4,212,900.000)

The Berar Manufacturing Company at Badnera closed down during 1959-60, which resulted in a steep fall in the production.

The unit that was in operation in 1960 was established in 1925 and worked perennially. The working days put in by the unit in 1960 were 358.

The fixed capital of the concern, which included the value of land and building, plant and machinery, tools and other equipment as also other assets such as furniture, fixtures, fittings and vehicles amounted to Rs. 14,47,642 in 1960. The value of plant and machinery, tools and other equipment accounted for Rs. 7,24,321 and that of land and buildings stood at Rs. 5,67,712. Machinery included looms, spindles, warping, spinning and sizing machines, etc. The value of working capital, comprising raw materials, fuel, consumable stores, finished and semi-finished products and cash at bank or in hand was estimated at Rs. 28,78,333.

The number of persons of all categories employed by the establishment was 1,349 in 1960. Of these, the actual workers were 1,211 consisting of 1,178 men and 33 women. The rest were employed in administrative duties. The wage-bill in 1960 was Rs. 21,15,166. Of this, the wages and salaries (together with bonus and other monetary benefits to workers) represented Rs. 17,35,656 and that of the persons other than workers, Rs. 2,47,055. The money value of other benefits and privileges was estimated at Rs. 1,32,455.

Coal, oil and electricity were used as fuel. The number of units of electricity consumed and their cost in 1960 stood at Rs. 38,13,835 and Rs. 2,14,948 respectively. The total expenditure on fuel in the same year was Rs. 3,18,171.

The raw materials used consisted of cotton, yarn, colours, chemicals and other store-materials. Cotton was brought from Akola, Amravati and other cotton markets in Vidarbha region, colours and chemicals, needed for finishing and dyeing mainly came from Japan and Germany and were purchased at Bombay and Nagpur. The value of cotton, consumed during 1960, was Rs. 39,14,965. The total value of all the raw materials consumed during the same year was Rs. 44,85,419.

The finished products were dhotis, long-cloth, chaddars and yarn. The following table gives the quantity and value of the products in the year 1960: -

Item

Unit

Quantity

Value in Rs.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

1. Dhotis

(Meters) Yards

(2,037,589.19 Meters) 22,39,109

16,84,676

2. Long-cloth

Do.

(5,993,954.33 Meters) 65,86,763

41,97,641

3. Chaddars

Do.

(151,841.69 Meters) 1,66,859

1,10,127

4. Yarn

Lbs.

(210,251.796 Kilos) 4,64,132

9,46,876

Total

69,39,320

Most of the product was locally sold and the rest found its way into outside markets.

The main difficulties experienced were replacement of old machinery, shortage of working capital and skilled labour. The unit received a loan of Rs. 25 lakhs from the Government for the purchase of machinery and to serve as working capital.

Ginning and Pressing.

Another important industry thriving on the abundant cotton crop is the ginning and pressing industry in the district. It is one of the few oldest industries in the district, established as far back as 1870. The position of the industry in 1907 was as under. [Central Provinces District Gazetteers, Amravati District, Vol. A., 1911, Pages 236-237.]

"At the end of 1907, there were in existence 88 factories carrying on this business, 60 being concerned with ginning and 28 with pressing. No estimate can be formed of the collective capital of these concerns, though it is stated that 62 of which figures are obtainable account for some 47 lakhs,, and it is calculated that a single gin requires a little over Rs. 1,200 of capital and a press Rs. 75,000 it may safely be said that the total investment is well over half a crore of rupees. In the factories, which come within the scope of the Factories Act (30 only at the present day) slightly over one thousand operatives were employed in 1894; the number increased steadily till 1904 in which year They stood at 6,000. The monthly wages earned by unskilled labourers are about 8 rupees per mensem."

Since then the industry has expanded considerably, the number of factories registered under the Factories Act standing at 31 in 1962. Amravati, Dhamangaon, Banosa, Achalpur, Warud and Anjangaon are the important centres of the industry.

The industry is seasonal, the working season spreading over from November to April. The actual working days generally varied between 80 and 150. One of the reporting units was established in 1904, four were established between 1910 and 1920, four between 1930 and 1940, four between 1940 and 1950, six between 1950 and 1960 and one in 1961.

The value of the fixed capital of the 19 reporting units was Rs. 30,18,081 in 1962. The value of the working capital, which includes the value of raw materials, fuel, by-products, finished products, etc., stood at Rs. 17,24,200 in the same year, as reported by 17 units.

The tools and equipment used in these units consisted of single or double roller gins, high or low pressure presses, cotton operators, steam or oil engine, boiler and drilling machine.

Diesel oil, coal and groundnut husk were used as fuel. Power was also used by a few units. The value of power consumed "by 20 reporting units was Rs. 4,47,618 for the year 1962.

The labour force was composed of both men and women. The maximum number of workers employed by a unit was 272. The skilled workers included engine drivers, fitters, boiler attendants, firemen, ginmen and roll-cutters. The other staff included managers, clerks and supervisors. Besides, the units employed unskilled labour. The daily wages paid to unskilled men and women workers were between Rs. 1.50 and Rs. 2.00 and between Rs. 1.00 and Rs. 1.12 respectively. Fitters, engine drivers and oilmen were paid on monthly basis. The total annual wage-bill as reported by 20 units was Rs. 7,11,369 for the year 1962-63.

Some concerns undertook ginning and pressing for the mills at Bombay and Ahmedabad.

Oil-seed Crushing.

Oil-seed crushing is a comparatively old industry of the district and has been organised for many years as an industry on a small scale. The tahsil-wise distribution of all presses in the district was as follows: -[Central Provinces District Gazetteers, Amravati District, Vol. A. (1911), P. 258.]

Name of tahsil

Number of oil-presses

1. Amravati

76

2. Achalpur

162

3. Daryapur

113

4. Chandur

48

5. Morshi

159

The oil-presses used cotton-seed, sesamum and linseed and the oil turned out was locally sold.

The quality of the oil thus extracted was not very pure. Similarly the yield was also low. Now the oil ghanis have been replaced by decorticating and seed-crushing machines. The oil ghanis are used only in villages for oil-seed crushing.

In 1962, there were 12 oil mills located at Amravati, Badnera and Chandur. Groundnut, linseed and cotton-seed were used for the extraction of oil.

The extensive acreage under groundnut and its fairly large production supply the raw materials for the industry.

Of the two reporting units one was established in 1940 and the other in 1950. These oil mills worked seasonally and their working days varied considerably.

The value of the fixed capital of the units in 1960 was Rs. 3,77,284 and that of working capital Rs. 6,48,897.

The equipment consisted of decorticators, expellers, hullers, filter presses and steam engines. They were purchased from Nagpur and Bombay. Of the fixed capital, plant and machinery accounted for Rs. 2,27,281.

The raw materials used are groundnut, cotton-seed and linseed. Cotton-seed and linseed are available locally in the district. Caustic soda is used in the process of extraction and is imported from abroad. Gunny bags and other store materials are purchased from Calcutta and Bombay. The value of raw materials consumed in 1960-61 was Rs. 34,31,987.

The products included cotton-seed, groundnut and linseed oil. The by-products included groundnut, cotton-seed, linseed, oilcakes and their husk and linters of cotton. The cotton-seed oil is utilised in the factories engaged in the manufacture of vegetable products and linters are required in paper mills and acetate yarn factories. The total value of the products and byproducts was Rs. 37.36,895 during 1960-61. The products are sold at Bombay. Ahmedabad and other places in India.

Coal and electric power were used as fuel. The value of the fuel used amounted to Rs. 80,473 in 1960-61. Husk, the byproduct, was also sometimes used as fuel.

These establishments employ both men and women workers. Men workers were paid between Rs. 1.62 and Rs. 200 per shift and women workers were paid between Rs. 1.12 and Rs. 1.50 per shift. The total number of employees was 124 and the wages drawn by them in 1960-61 were Rs. 1,10,644. The oilmen and fitters were paid Rs. 55 and Rs. 80 per month, respectively.

Metal-working (Aluminium, Copper and Brassware).

Most of the copper and brassware required in the district was  formerly imported. [Central Provinces District Gazetteers, Amravati District, Vol. A, 1911, P. 240.] However the district was known for the excellent lotas and musical bullock bells, made at Amravati and at Kasargaon in the Achalpur tahsil. Excellent gongs were also produced.

A number of units engaged in metal working are scattered all over the district. A majority of these are cottage units. The process they follow is very simple. They first prepare a clay mould. Different metals are mixed until the required alloy is obtained. The mixture is poured in the mould. The pot when cool is beaten and polished.

In 1962 seven units engaged in this industry were registered under the Factories Act as small-scale industrial units. They were located at Amravati proper and worked throughout the year. Of the five reporting units, one was established in 1945, another in 1957 and the rest during 1960-61. The value of the fixed capital of these units, comprising the value of land and building plant and machinery, furniture, vehicles, etc., amounted to Rs. 1,63,695 in 1962. During the same year the working capital of four units totalled about Rs. 1,45,487.

Mechanical power presses are used in the production as they facilitate pressing, embossing, spinning, cutting and buff-polishing.

The equipment mainly consists of power press, fly press, sharpening and scraping machine, spinning lathe, rolling machines, etc.

The principal raw materials used in the factories are various kinds of metals, viz., brass, copper, aluminium, zinc, tin and stainless steel to form into an alloy required for casting. Of these zinc and tin are bought in the form of ingots, sheets and scraps.

Among other materials required are chemicals, soda ash, caustic soda, acids, sand etc. The value of raw materials consumed as reported by three units was Rs. 2,90,428 in 1962. The raw materials were purchased from Bombay. Electricity, hard coke, coal and wood were used as fuel in the process of production. The total expenses on fuel for the three units amounted to Rs 12,680 in 1962.

The number of workers employed by the five concerns was 64 in 1962. One unit employed the highest number of workers, viz., 34. They were paid Rs. 33,205 as wages including the money value of other benefits and privileges enjoyed by them.

The finished products of these concerns are mainly utensils of daily use of various metals like brass, copper, aluminium and stainless steel. Two of the reporting units undertook production of surgical instruments and steel furniture besides that of utensils of common use. The value of the products as reported by three units was Rs. 5,62,005 in 1962.

Almost all the units experienced difficulty, in securing raw material and capital. For want of capital one of the units could not undertake production independently and had to produce goods as per orders received from merchants. One unit received a loan of Rs. 30,000 from the State Government under the State Aid to Industries Act. The produce is mainly marketed locally. A part, however, finds markets throughout the State and in the adjoining areas of Madhya Pradesh.

Printing and Book-binding Industry.

The industry is of a comparatively recent origin and its development is generally associated with the growth of educational activities and the press-the forum of thought. The growth of this industry in Amravati was limited as in the absence of any important dailies or weeklies, the work of the printing press was mainly confined to printing of books and other miscellaneous work received on Government or private account. In 1962 there were nine printing presses in the district and most of them were located at Amravati town. These units undertook the work of book-binding in addition to printing. Of the four reporting units, one was established in 1936, one in 1949 and the other two after 1950.

The estimated value of the fixed capital, as reported by these four units was Rs. 2,09,594 as against that of the working capital which was Rs. 33,630 in 1962.

Litho printing, offset printing and block printing were the main jobs accepted by the printing presses. In addition, they undertook preparation of drawings and designs, cutting, block-making and type foundry. The tools and equipment consisted of cylinder printing machine, treadle machine, ruling machine and cutting machine.

Generally power is used as fuel by most of the units. The value of fuel consumed as reported by two units was Rs. 1,250 in 1962.

The units use papers of various types such as art paper, leather and brown paper, ink, type metal, varnish, spirit, glue, stationery and binding materials such as binding cloth, leather,  canvas, glue and cardboard. 1 hey spend mostly on paper which  is purchased from Bombay, Calcutta and Kanpur. The superior art paper is imported from abroad. The other raw materials are available locally or are purchased from Nagpur and Bombay. The value of raw materials consumed, as reported by three units, was Rs. 37,500 in 1962.

The units print books, forms of bills, cash-memos, letterheads, handbills and ledgers. One unit has printed a daily newspaper also. The gross earnings of three reporting units, stood at Rs. 1,03,808 in 1962.

The number of persons employed in the four reporting units was 58 in 1962. The skilled workers, viz., compositors, machine-men, treadlemen and binders were paid on monthly basis. The annual wage-bill of the four reporting concerns was Rs. 30,607 in 1962.

Kumkum-making Industry.

Kumkum-making could be regarded as a unique and distinguishing industry of Amravati district. There were six such units registered under the Factories Act in 1962. They were located at Amravati and Badnera and worked throughout the year.

Most of the units were established between 1940 and 1960. The value of the fixed capital of the six reporting units, was Rs. 1,56,530 and that of the working capital Rs. 4,34,973. The machinery used consisted of grinding mills, edge-runner, disintegrators, screening units, heaters and electric motors. Electricity was chiefly used as fuel. The value of fuel consumed, as reported by five units, was Rs. 12,619 in 1962.

The principal raw materials used by the industry are rhoda-mine, borax, spindle oil, barytes powder, rosin, turmeric and aromatic chemicals. They are purchased at Bombay, Calcutta, Nagpur, Hoshiyarpur and Salem. The value of raw materials consumed by the five reporting units was Rs. 6,23,213 in 1962.

The units employed both men and women workers, their number in the six reporting units being 108. Of these, one unit alone employed 48 persons. The daily wages paid to men workers varied between Rs. 1.50 and Rs. 2.00 and those to women workers between Rs. 1.00 and Rs. 1.25. The annual wagebill for the five reporting units was Rs. 10,511 in 1962.

The units produced kumkum (vermilion), lobhan (a kind of frankincense), gulal (red powder), bukka (black scented powder), sindoor (a product of red lead) and hingool (red oxide of mercury). The products were marketed in Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Banaras, Kanpur, Nagpur and other places. The value of the annual turnover of the four reporting units was Rs. 5,52,650 in 1962.

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