With the above exceptions the district is an undulating plain
of black soil of a fertile type, its richest tracts being perhaps in the neighbourhood of the Wardha and the Purna rivers. It is watered by a number of streams which rise in the Satpudas in the north.
The Purna, the largest of them rises near Bhainsdehi in Betul
district of Madhya Pradesh at a height of just over 760 metres in the Satpudas and after flowing for some 50 kilometres in a general southerly and south-easterly direction through the hills enters the district emerging into the plains, as the district
boundary here lies along the base of the hills. It traverses across
the plains of the district in a south-westerly direction dividing
it into two halves, first through the Achalpur tahsil and then
along the boundary between the Amravati and Daryapur
tahsils. Then it turns due westwards forming the boundary of
the district and continues further to join the Tapi in Nimar
district. On the banks of the Purna are found a string of
villages beginning from Vishroli near the foot of the Satpudas
and at close intervals of less than 3 kilometres lower down from
Deurwada, situated near the confluence with the Arna. The
chief among them are Assegaon, Thugaon and Kholapur.
The only important left bank tributary of the Purna is the
Pedhi. It rises in the low hills near Rithpur and receives a number of small affluents both from the east and the west, the chief on the west being the Naghira river. The Pedhi flows in a general south-easterly course passing by Walgaon and Bhat-kuli. After crossing the district boundary it turns and flows westwards and north-westwards to join the Purna at the point where the latter makes a very short sojourn outside the Amravati district into Akola.
The first of the principal right bank affluents of the Purna is
the Arna which emerges from the Satpuda hills in Betul district and flows in a south and south-easterly direction passing by Sirasgaon to join the Purna just below Deurwada.
The next affluent is a small river known as the Bodi river,
which after passing by Talegaon joins the Purna at Rajna.
With its affluents, the Pili or Bahramkasand on which is situated the village of Karasgaon, the Bichan river passing through Paratwada, the Sapan river passing through Achalpur, the Chandrabhaga river is a very important tributary flowing in a general south-westerly direction past Wasni, Khallar and Daryapur to join the Purna about a kilometre and a half below Dhamodi. The river rises just below the Vairat plateau and after receiving a number of small streams draining the southern slopes of the Chikhaldara plateau and the slopes of the Gawilgad plateau, flows in an easterly direction in a valley which forms a cultivated tract of about 2 kilometres in width breaking the continuity of the forested areas on either side. About 2½ km. south-west of Dhamangaon it turns southwards. The principal right bank affluent of the Chandrabhaga is the Bhuleshwari river which itself receives the Gangadari river, another Satpuda stream. The Bhuleshwari passes by Shindi Buzrug and Kokarda and meets the Chandrabhaga near Daryapur east of Babli.
The westernmost tributary of the Purna of some importance
within the district is the Shahanur river with its affluent, the Bordi. The Shahanur river rises in the Gawilgad hills near Jhira ghat and after a fairly long and winding course first eastwards and then south-westwards enters the plains near Malkapur
and flows southwards passing by Anjangaon and turns south-
westwards at Umri and continues in this direction to join the
Purna beyond the border of the district.
Though the river Bordi flows for a major part of its course
outside the district, it is joined by the combined waters of the Chansuri river and the Gaimuk which have their plain courses within the district.
The Wardha river rises to the east of Multai in Madhya
Pradesh and has a long and tortuous course along the Satpuda
hills. It forms the eastern boundary of the district and receives
a number of short tributaries on its right flowing within the
district. The Sakti river rises in Shendari reserved forest area
in the Satpudas, and passing by Jarud and flowing southwards
joins the Wardha. The Dhawagiri river rises in the Dabka
reserved forest area and flows past Benoda and Loni before
joining the Wardha.
The Pak Nala rises in the same Dabka forest area and receives, besides the Satpuda affluents, the drainage of the northern slopes of Lakhara hills, a detached mass south of the Satpudas. Hiwarkhed is situated on the banks of this river. The Pak Nala Project on this river provides irrigation facilities to the area on the northern side of the Morshi-Warud road. The Kobi drains the southern slopes of the Lakhara hills into the Wardha.
The Maru river rises south of Atner in Betul district and
after a winding course in the Satpudas enters the district and
flows in a general south-easterly course to join the Wardha,
where the latter makes an abrupt right angular turn to continue
the course of the Maru.
The Narha river is a much smaller but important tributary
of the Wardha. Morshi, the tahsil headquarters, is situated on its western bank.
The westernmost tributary of some size flowing from the
Satpudas is the Chargar river having its source just east of the Wardha-Purna watershed, and flows past Ghat Larki, Khed, and Udkhed with a general south-easterly direction parallel to the water divide and joins the Wardha at Bhambor. The river Chargar receives the Kasi river, a smaller stream flowing somewhat parallel to it on its western side from the north, and also the combined waters of the Dhaula, the Lendi and the Bharan-takia from the Ner hills in the south-west. Ner Pingalai village is situated between the Lendi and the Bharantakia.
There are several small streams flowing eastwards from the Wardha-Purna water divide into the Wardha river. Among them is the river Ner Pingalai on which are located Talegaon, Thakur and Tivsa. The Bor river passing by Kurha and Idarba river passing by Temburni, Virul and Anjansinghi river join together and flow into the Wardha. The Kolad-Dhangar river flowing
roughly parallel to the Wardha on its western side passes by
Mangrul and joins it at Borgaon in the south-east corner of the
district. The Chandrabhaga river (this should not be confused with the much larger one of the same name flowing by Daryapur) flows by Dattapur in an easterly direction and then turns
southwards to join the Wardha outside the district. The last of the tributaries of the Wardha in the district is the Bemla which has only its middle course in the extreme southern part of the district, but is important as receiving a number of affluents flowing from the north, such as the Kholad and the Chandrabhaga (the third one in the district with the same name) flowing by Chandur Railway and the Kalamali.
Purna-Wardha Water Divide.
The water divide between the Purna and the Wardha system of rivers (in fact this is the water divide between the Tapi flowing into the Arabian Sea and the Godavari flowing into the Bay of Bengal as the former two are only tributaries of the latter) begins in the district at the foot hills of the Satpudas and runs as a low divide of a little more than 360 metres in elevation in a general south-easterly direction with peaks on it rising to 404 metres east of Pohenkheda and to 435 metres in Ner hills. From the Ner hills it turns and runs in a south-westerly direction somewhat parallel to the Morshi-Amravati road with peak heights of 387 metres and 392 metres, and in the hills east of Amravati with peaks over 460 metres. The water divide continues in the south-westerly direction with a lower height (350 metres at Loni) and passes outside the district. By comparing the levels of the beds of the Purna and the Wardha it is seen that the maximum relative relief is not generally more than 100 metres, indicative of post-mature stage of dissection. It may be mentioned here that the initial south-easterly course of the divide changing into a south-westerly trend is also reflected in the courses of the several tributaries of the Purna system within the district.
As the highest hills of the Melghat are in its southern part the water divide between the south flowing tributaries of the Purna and the north flowing tributaries of the Tapi lies towards the southern part of the Melghat hills, so that the greater part of Melghat is drained northwards and northeastwards towards the Tapi river. The more important among them are the Khursi, the Khandu, the Sipna, the Garga, the Dewal and the Dhulghat. The Khursi river takes its source on the eastern slopes of Katkumbh plateau and after a brief sojourn into the Betul district re-enters the district and flows in a north-westerly direction flowing close to the district boundary for some distance and then follows it for a while till it leaves it to flow northwards to join the Tapi. The Khandu rising near Khamla in Betul district enters the district to flow west of the Katkumbh plateau and has a fairly long and winding course in a general north-westerly direction cutting its bed deeply through the several ranges of hills, before joining the Tapi just outside the district. The Khapra has its source just
outside the district on the northern slopes of the Antarmal plateau of Betul district and has a similar winding course
through the hills to join the Tapi outside the district. The Sipna rises very close to the source of the Khapra and has a similar long winding but westerly course towards the Tapi. But unlike the aforesaid rivers the Sipna has several flat stretches of land adjoining its middle and lower courses useful for the purposes of cultivation supporting such villages as Harisal, Chakarda and Duni. The Garga rises on the northern slopes of the Gawilgad ridge west of the Vairat plateau and is joined by the Kutumbi at Koha and has a general westerly and northwesterly course passing by Kalamkhar and Dhulghat to join the Tapi. This river is even more important than the Sipna, for the lower valley below Garga Malur is an extensive level area, richly cultivated, forming the Dharni plain which reaches up to Sipna on the north at Diwa. The Dewal and Dhulghat rivers are two smaller streams which have their sources in the Gawilgad ridge farther to the west of the others and have their lower plain courses near the Tapi.