GENERAL

CLIMATE

The climate of this district is characterised by a hot summer and general dryness throughout the year except during the south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four periods. The winter from December to February, the summer from March to May, the south-west monsoon season from June to September and the post-monsoon period from the October to November.

Rainfall.

Records of rainfall in the district are available for 13 stations for period ranging from 68 to 95 years. The details of the rainfall at these stations and for the district as a whole are given in tables 2 and 3. The average annual rainfall in the district is 877.4 mm (34.54") in the plains. The rainfall at Chikhaldara which is a hill-station is about twice as much as in the plains. The rainfall generally increases from the south-west towards the north-east of the district. Daryapur near the south-west border of the district getting 767.8 mm. (30.23") and Barur near the north-eastern border getting 1,007.2 mm. (39.66"). The rainfall during June to September constitutes,85 per cent of the annual rainfall, July being the rainiest month. The variation in the rainfall from year to year in the district is large. During the fifty-year period from 1901 to 1950, the highest annual rainfall which amounted to 165 per cent of the normal was recorded in 1944, while the lowest which, was only 44 per cent of the normal occurred in 1920. In the same 50-year period, the rainfall was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 11 years. Rainfall less than 80 per cent of the normal in the two consecutive years has occurred on four occasions. In the case of individual stations even three successive years of such low rainfall have occurred once each at Kholapur and Achalpur.

It will be seen from table 3 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 600 and 1,100 mm. (23.62" and 43.31") in 40 years out of fifty.

On an average the number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm. 10 cents—or more) in the plains of the district is 49 in a year. At Chikhaldara there are 77 rainy days in a year,

TABLE No. 2

NORMALS AND EXTREMES OF RAINFALL IN AMRAVATI DISTRICT

Station

Number of years of data

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Amravati

50

a

12.9

16.0

9.4

8.4

13.2

155.2

248.2

173.2

b

1.1

1.1

0.8

0.7

1.2

8.3

13. 2

9.9

Badnera

50

a

11.9

15.7

7.9

5.8

12.2

158.7

252.0

159.3

b

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.7

1.2

8.4

13.1

9.8

Morshi

50

a

11.7

18.3

8.1

6.6

9.4

143.8

244.6

184.9

b

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.5

1.1

7.9

13.2

10.0

Chandur Railway

50

a

13.2

16.0

8. 6

6.3

12.2

154.4

241.1

163.6

b

0.9

1.1

0.9

0.6

1.4

8.2

12.7

9.4

Kholapur

50

a

9.9

16.8

8.1

5.6

12.5

149.3

239.8

153.2

b

1.0

1.0

0.8

0.5

1.3

8.4

12.5

9.0

Barur

50

a

12.2

21.8

12.5

9.1

15.5

176.5

300.2

214.4

b

1.1

1.5

1.3

0.9

1.2

8.9

15.0

11.8

Talegaon

50

a

14.0

16.8

10.7

9.9

14.7

161.8

270.5

186.4

b

1.1

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.5

8.3

13.8

10.1

Achalpur Cantonment

50

a

15.0

17.5

8.6

7.1

14.0

143.0

239.8

169.2

b

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

1.4

8.1

13.1

9.9

Daryapur

50

a

12.7

14.7

7.4

6.1

10.9

128.3

237.5

136.9

b

1.0

0.9

0.7

0.5

0.9

7.1

11.9

8.4

Anjangaon

50

a

13.2

12.9

8.4

3.6

11.9

128.0

222.3

158.0

b

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.4

1.3

7.5

12.0

8.8

Dharni

--

a

7.6

7.4

5.8

3.6

10.2

159.0

364.2

310.1

b

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.3

1.0

7. 6

16.6

15.1

Chandur Bazar

50

a

17.5

17.5

8.1

5.3

9.4

143.3

239.8

175.3

b

1.2

1.2

0.9

0.6

1.2

8.2

12.7

10.4

Amravati (District)

50

a

12.7

15.9

8.6

6.5

12.2

150.1

258.3

182.0

b

1.0

1.1

0.9

0.6

1.2

8.1

13.3

10.2

--

HILL STATION

Chikhaldara

50

a

16.5

14.7

10.7

8.6

20.1

214.1

537.0

445.0

b

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

2.0

10.3

21.0

19.7

(a) Normal rainfall in millimetres. (b) Average number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm. or more).

*Based on all available data up to 1959.
† Years given in brackets.

TABLE No. 2—contd.

Station

Number of years of data

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

Highest annual rain-fall as per-centage of normal and year†

Lowest annual rain-fall as per-centage of normal and year†

Heaviest

rainfall in 24 hours*

(1)

(2)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15) (16) (17)

Amount (milli-metres)

(18)

Date

(19)

Amravati

50

a

165.1

44.2

21.3

9.1

876.2

175

(1944)

45

(1920)

234.9

1933 Sept. 15

b

8.8

2.5

1.2

0.8

49.6

 

 

 

 

Badnera

50

a

152.7

41.1

22.9

7.6

847.8

168
(1944)

36

(1920)

293.9

1921 July 23

b

8.4

2.6

1.2

0.7

49.0

 

 

 

 

Morshi

50

a

146.8

49.3

18.8

6.9

849.2

200
(1944)

35

(1920)

232.4

1876 Sept. 4

b

8.4

2.5

1.1

0.8

48.5

 

 

 

 

Chandur Railway

50

a

167.6

39.9

18.3

9.7

850.9

169

(1931)

36

(1920)

271.8

1927 June 18

b

8.5

2.4

1.1

0.7

47.9

 

 

 

 

Kholapur

50

a

148.6

39.9

22.3

9.7

815.7

204

(1931)

35

(1920)

186.7

1933 Sept. 15

b

8.1

2.3

1.3

0.7

46.9

 

 

 

 

Barur

50

a

168.4

46.7

20.8

9.1

1,007.2

170

(1944)

48

(1920)

236.0

1955 July 11

b

9.1

2.6

1.0

0.8

55.2

 

 

 

 

Talegaon

50

a

171.2

44.5

18.5

8.4

927.4

150

(1936)

42

(1920)

224.3

1933 Sept. 15

b

9.0

2.8

1.2

0.7

51.9

 

 

 

 

Achalpur Canton-ment.

50

a

134.9

45.5

28.5

8.6

831.7

192

(1944)

45

(1918)

209.0

1933 September 15

b

8.2

2.4

1.2

0.8

48.7

 

 

 

 

Daryapur

50

a

142.0

39.1

23.1

9.1

767.8

155

(1949)

45

(1950)

208.8

1905 July 2

b

7.4

2.4

1.3

0.8

43.3

 

 

 

 

Anjangaon

50

a

146.1

46.5

28.5

8.1

787.5

175

(1933)

52

(1920)

233.7

1944 Aug. 21

b

7.7

2.5

1.4

0.9

45.3

 

 

 

 

Dharni

50

a

198.1

37.1

24.1

7.1

1,134.3

159

(1944)

47

(1918)

228.6

1930 July 2

b

9.7

2.1

1.2

0.6

56.0

 

 

 

 

Chandur Bazar

50

a

142.2

42.9

24.1

6.9

832.3

203

(1944)

36

(1920)

160.0

1941 July 11

b

8.4

2.2

1.1

0.8

48.9

 

 

 

 

Amravati (Dis-trict)

50

a

157.0

43.1

22.6

8.4

877.4

165

(1944)

44

(1920)

--

--

b

8.5

2.4

1.2

0.8

49.3

 

 

 

 

HILL STATION

Chikhal-dara

50

a

305.8

76.7

46.0

12.7

1,707.9

150

(1948)

42

(1918)

431.0

1886 August 19

b

13.4

3.2

1.8

1.2

76.8

 

 

 

 

(a) Normal rainfall in millimetres. (b) Average number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm. or more). *Based on all available data up to 1959.
†Years given in brackets.

TABLE No. 3

FREQUENCY OF ANNUAL RAINFALL IN THE DISTRICT

(Data 1901 to 1950)

Range in millimetres

No. of years

Range in millimetres

No. of years

(1)

(2)

(1)

(2)

301—400

1

901—1,000

3

401—500

0

1,001—1,100

10

501—600

3

1,101—1,200

2

601—700

9

1,201—1,300

2

701—800

4

1,301—1,400

1

801—900

14

1,401—1,500

1

The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded in the plains of the district was 293.9 mm. (11.57") at Badnera on July 23, 1921. The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours at the Chikhaldara hill station was 431.0 mm. (16.97") on August 19, 1886.

Temperature.

There is a meteorological observatory at Amravati and the data of this station may be taken as fairly representative of the climate of the district in general, except over the hilly region around Chikhaldara. There was also an observatory at Chikhal-dara in the past and the available records of this observatory have also been utilised in preparing the description of the cli-mate which follows.

After October, temperature decreases progressively till December which is the coldest month. The mean daily maximum temperature at Amravati is 28.4C (83.2F) and the mean daily minimum temperature is 14.7C (58.4F). At Chikhaldara the mean daily maximum temperature is about 22C (72F) and the mean daily minimum temperature is about 13C (55F). In the wake of western disturbances which move across North India in the winter months, cold waves affect the district at times and the night temperatures may go down to 5 or 6C. Temperatures rise rapidly after February till May which is the hottest month of the year. In May the mean daily maximum temperature at Amravati is 42.1C (107.8F) and the mean daily minimum temperature is 27.2C (80.9F); while at Chikhaldara the mean daily maximum temperature is about 35C (94F) and the mean daily minimum temperature is about 23C (73F). The heat in the summer season is severe during the day, the nights being comparatively cooler. The afternoon heat is sometimes relieved by thundershowers. With the arrival of the south-west monsoon by about mid-June there is an appreciable drop in day temperature and the weather becomes pleasant. After the end of September when the south-west monsoon withdraws, the day temperatures increase slightly and there is a secondary maximum of temperature in October. The night temperature, however, decreases progressively after September.

Humidity.

The highest maximum temperature recorded at Amravati is 46.7C (116.1F) on 25th May, 1954 and 2nd June, 1923. The lowest minimum temperature recorded is 5.0C (41 0F) on 9th February 1887.

Except during the monsoon season when the humidity is high, the air is generally dry. The summer months are the driest, with relative humidity between 25 and 35 per cent.

Cloudiness.

During the months, when the south-west monsoon prevails skies are heavily clouded to overcast. In the rest of the year clear or lightly clouded skies prevail.

Winds.

Winds are generally light to moderate with some increase in speed in the latter part of the summer season and in the south-west monsoon season. In the post-monsoon and cold seasons, winds are mostly easterly or north-easterly. By March south-westerly and westerly winds start blowing and in the rest of the summer winds are mostly from directions between south-west and north-west. These winds continue in the south-west monsoon season also.

Special Weather Phenomena.

In association with monsoon depressions which originate in the Bay of Bengal and move westwards, the district experiences strong winds and widespread heavy rain. Storms and depressions of the post-monsoon months of October and November also affect the weather in the district sometimes. Thunderstorms occur in all seasons, their frequency being least in the period from November to January.

Tables 4, 5 and 6 give the data of temperature and humidity, mean wind speed and frequency of special weather phenomena, respectively, for Amravati district.

TABLE No. 4

NORMALS OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY IN AMRAVATI DISTRICT

Month (1)

Mean Daily Maximum Temperature C (2)

Mean Daily Minimum Temperature C (3)

Highest Maximum ever recorded

Lowest Minimum ever recorded

Relative Humidity

C (4)

Date (5)

C (6)

Date (7)

0830* Per cent (8)

1730* Per cent (9)

January

29.2

15.1

35.0

1889 Jan. 29

6.1

1934 Jan. 14

50

31

February

31.7

16.7

38.9

1953 Feb. 26

5.0

1887 Feb. 9

43

24

March

36.3

20.8

43.9

1892 Mar. 28

8.9

1898 Mar. 4

33

23

April

40.2

24.8

46.1

1898 Apr. 30

12.8

1905 Apr. 1

29

23

May

42.1

27.2

46.7

1954 May 25

18.3

1917 May 4

36

28

June

36.8

25.4

46.7

1923 June 2

19.4

1916 June 16

66

48

July

30.7

23.3

39.4

1931 July 1

18.9

1890 July 27

82

69

August

29.9

22.8

36.7

1902 Aug. 16

15.6

1944 Aug. 10

83

65

September

31.1

22.6

38.3

1899 Sep. 30

17.2

1893 Sep. 2

80

65

October

32.7

20.4

39.4

1899 Oct. 7

12.8

1889 Oct. 26

58

40

November

30.3

17.1

35.6

1899 Nov. 3

8.9

1884 Nov. 29

50

32

December

28.4

14.7

33.9

1913 Dec. 9

8.3

1937 Dec. 3

51

29

Annual

33.3

20.9

--

--

--

--

55

40

*Hours I.S.T.

TABLE No. 5

MEAN WIND SPEED IN KILOMETRES PER HOUR IN AMRAVATI DISTRICT

Jan. (1)

Febr. (2)

March (3)

Apiil (4)

May (5)

June (6)

--

August (8)

Sept. (9)

Oct. (10)

Nov. (11)

--

Annual (13)

6.3

6.8

7.1

7.7

9.8

12.4

13.0

11.1

7.4

5.5

5.6

5.6

8.2

TABLE No. 6

SPECIAL WEATHER PHENOMENA IN AMRAVATI DISTRICT

Mean No. of days with

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

Thunder

0.3

2.7

2.1

1.8

2.5

6.6

2.8

1.1

3.3

1.6

0.7

0.0

25.5

Hail

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Duststorm

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Squall

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Fog

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

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