EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Prior to the establishment of the Zilla Parishad education was under State control and was administered by the Director of Education of the State. Since the formation of the Zilla Parishad, Education has come under dual control, viz., that of the State Government and the Zilla Parishad. The Deputy Director of Education, Vidarbha, Nagpur, is the officer in charge of the State sector in the Division.
The Education Department of the Zilla Parishad is headed by the Parishad Education Officer who also acts as the Secretary to the Education Committee of the Zilla Parishad. He is a Class I Gazetted Officer of the Maharashtra Education Service. He supervises, controls and guides the work of his subordinates. He has powers to inspect and release grants to primary and secondary schools in the district. He grants recognition to primary, middle and secondary schools. He is assisted in his work by one Deputy Education Officer, belonging to the Class II cadre of the State service. The work of the inspection of secondary schools is done by the Assistant Deputy Education Officers. Under the Deputy Education Officer are 25 Assistant Deputy Educational Inspectors and 26 Social Education Organisers.
All girls' schools, whether primary or secondary, come within the purview of the Zilla Parishad. The Assistant Deputy Education Officers of the Zilla Parishad have to visit and inspect the primary schools. The secondary schools are inspected by the Inspectors of Schools. The report of inspection in both the cases is forwarded to the Education Department in the State sector.
The municipalities have been given certain powers under the Local Self-Government Acts of the former States of Central > Provinces and Madhya Pradesh. Accordingly recognition of schools in the municipal areas and allotment of grants from the State revenue are the duties of the municipality.
The education at school level is divided into the following six categories: -
Primary Schools: From Standards I to IV.
Indian Middle Schools: From Standards V to VII (Class
VIII is attached to these schools under the scheme to
relieve educated unemployment. English is optional
in these schools).
Indian-English Middle School: From Standards V to VIII with English compulsory.
Higher Secondary Schools: From Standards IX to XI with two diversified groups.
Multipurpose Higher Secondary Schools: From Standards
IX to XI with more than two diversified groups.
Basic Training Colleges for primary school teachers, Secondary
Teachers Training Institutes and institutes leading to Diploma
in Teaching for Indian-English middle school teachers and Post
graduate degree course in training for high school and higher
secondary school teachers form the main training institutions.
Though of comparatively recent origin, importance of preprimary education is now felt even in the rural areas of the district. It helps in finding out the aptitude of the children and inculcates good habits among the pupils. In 1962, there were 35 such pre-primary schools in the district wherein 1,600 children, 850 hoys and 750 girls, were learning.
In 1963 there were 1,147 primary schools in the district comprising 49 senior basic schools, 18 junior basic schools, 270 single teacher schools, 638 other primary schools and 172 Indian middle schools. There were 1,38,442 pupils in these schools of whom 84,231 were boys and 54,211 were girls. There were 4,615 teachers in these schools of whom 3,824 were males and the remaining 791 were females. Of the male teachers 2,714 were trained and 1,110 were untrained. Of the female teachers 637 were trained and 154 were untrained.
During the same year there were 102 high schools for boys in
the district of which three were under the control of the Zilla Parishad, one was under the Municipal Committee and 98 were private-aided schools including 11 exclusively for girls. The number of students stood at 24,294 inclusive of 17,358 boys and 6,936 girls. These schools had 1,190 teachers of whom' 1,010 were males and 180 were females.
There were nine higher secondary schools in the district. Of these one each was controlled by the Zilla Parishad and the Municipal Committee, the remaining seven being private-aided schools. Of the private-aided schools, two were exclusively for girls. These schools provided education to 6,986 students (4,222 boys and 2,764 girls). There were 210 male teachers and 49 female teachers in these schools.
Besides ordinary high schools and higher secondary schools, there were multipurpose higher secondary schools in the district. These numbered nine. Of these two were controlled by the Zilla Parishad and the remaining seven were private-aided schools. These schools had on their roll 5,760 boys and 1,419 girls making a total of 7,179. There were 317 teachers including 269 male teachers and 48 female teachers.
Secondary education is mostly conducted by private bodies on
grant-in-aid basis. The staff in these schools is governed under
the School Code. The need for secondary schools in the rural
areas is met only up to 60 per cent. These schools are not properly provided with buildings, trained staff, equipment and
finances. The Government have been extending assistance to
these institutions by way of grants towards construction of
buildings, acquisition of land for buildings and playgrounds and
purchase of necessary equipment. Inadequacy of training facilities coupled with general unwillingness of the trained staff to
serve in rural areas creates obstacles in the administration of
these schools in rural areas.