BANKING TRADE AND COMMERCE

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The weights and measures in the district were numerous and they very often varied with the types of commodities. A similar picture prevailed throughout the country. This created considerable difficulties in inter-regional trade. A uniform system of weights and measures was, therefore, adopted by the Government of India and the Standard of Weights and Measures Act, 1956, was enacted. This Act laid down the basic units under the Metric System which derives its name from the primary unit of measurement, the metre. The metric units based on the multiples of ten have an advantage in application. The erstwhile Government of Bombay, in response to the Central enactment, passed a complementary legislation, viz., the Bombay Weights and Measures Act, 1958. The Act was enforced throughout the State from 1st April 1962, so far as metric weights were concerned. The enforcement was gradually extended to other fields and on 1st October 1962, the metric units of length and on 1st April 1963, the metric measures of capacity were also respectively enforced.

The following conversion table shows the relation between the old and the new units.

Weights.

For sugar, cotton, ghee, flour, tobacco, turmeric, etc., the most common weights were tola, seer, dhada and maund. Their metric conversions are-

1 tola = 180 grains = 11.6638 gm.

80 tolas = 1 seer = 933.10 gm.

2 seers = 1 dhada = 2.332 kilograms.

40 seers = 1 maund (man) = 37.324 kg.

20 maunds= 1 khandi = 746.48 kg.

Even in these there were a number of variations. Thus the common terms like pasari, dhada and maund had varied denominations, e.g.:-

1 pasari = 100 tolas of groceries = 1.166 kg.

1 pasari - 115 tolas of tobacco = 1.341 kg.

1 pasari - 120 tolas of raw sugar = 1.399 kg.

1 pasari =

150 to 180 tolas for cotton, i.e., 1.749 to 2.099 kg.  or135 tolas in Daryapur, i.e., varying from 200 tolas to 360 tolas, i.e., between 2.332 kg. to 4.198 kg.      

Maund - Varying between 10 seers and 40 seers, i.e., between 9.331 kg. and 37.324 kg.

In the cotton industry kapas (raw cotton) and ginned cotton were dealt with according to the following scales: -

Kapas (raw cotton)-

38.87 tolas = 1 lb. = 453.3719 grams.

7 lbs. = 1 quarter = 3.173 kg.

4 quarters = 1 maund = 12.692 kg.

20 maunds = 1 khandi (local) = 2.53 quintals.

Cotton (ginned)-

38.87 tolas = 1 lb. = 453.3719 gm.

28 lbs. = 1 maund = 12.694 kg.

10 maunds - 1 bojha = 1.269 quintals.

Pressed Cotton-

Bombay Khardi = 784 lbs. = 10 Bengali mds.

                                       = 3.554 quintals.

Cold-

1 tola = 12 mashas = 216 grains = 1.3996 gm.

1 masha = 4 wals or 8 gunjas =. 1737 gm.

Capacity.

Grains-

16 chattaks = 1 seer = 100 tolas.

2 seers == 1 paili = 2.332 kg.

8 pailis = 1 kuro or maund = 18.656 kg.

20 maunds = 1 khandi = 3.731 quintals.

For Ghee and Milk-

1 seer = 80 tolas = 933.104 gm.

Length.

For depth or height-

purush (a man) = a fathom = 6 ft. = 1.82 metres.

For cloth-

hath (of 18 inches) = gaz = 45.72 centimetres.

2 gaz. = 1 yard or war = 91.44 centimetres.

For distance-

kos = 2 miles = 3.218 km. Area.

For Area-

1 acre = 40 gunthas =.40 hectare.

1 guntha =.1 hectare.

1 bigha = 25 gunthas =.25 hectare.

Tiffan=A acres=1.60 hectares.

1 grain = 0.064,799 grams = 64.799 mg. 1 tola = 180 grains = 11.6638 grams.

1 val = 4.5 grains = 0.2916 grams = 291.6 milligrams.

1 ounce = 2.43,056 tolas = 128.3495 grams.

1 pound (lb). = 0.4,535,924 kilograms = 453.592 grams.

1 seer = 0.93,310 kilograms = 933.10 grams= 80 tolas.

1 ton = 1.01,605 metric tons.

1 md. = 0.0,367,347 tons = 0.0,373,242 metric tons.

1 inch = 0.0,254 metres = 2.54 centimetres.

1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3,048 metres = 30.48 centimetres.

1 yard = 36 inches = 0.9,144 metres = 91.44 centimetres.

1 furlong = 660 ft. = 220 yards = 201.168 metres.

1 chain = 20.1,168 metres.

1 sq. inch = 0.00,064,516 metres.

1 sq. foot = 144 sq. inches = 0.092,903 metres.

1 sq. yard = 9 sq. feet = 0.83,613 metres.

1 sq. mile = 640 acres = 258,999 hectares.

1 cubic inch = 16.3,871 cubic centimetres.

1 fluid ounce = 28.4,132 cubic centimetres.

1 gill = 142.066 cubic centimetres.

1 gallon = 277.420 cubic inches = 4.54,596 litres,

1 litre = 1,000.028 cubic centimetres.

Even after the enforcement of the above Act old units such as seer, paili, kudo, purush, etc., are still in vogue at least in domestic parlance. With the passage of time and acclimatisation of the people with the new system the old system will be gradually replaced by the new.

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